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Dějiny věd a techniky, No. 2, Vol. XLVI (2013)


DVT 132, 75
Domnělý objev chemického prvku dvi-manganu v Československu
Jiří Jindra

Supposed “discovery” of the element dvimanganese in Czechoslovakia.
This article presents the story of discovery of dvimanganese (rhenium) in Germany and Czechoslovakia. The works leading to this discovery (I. Tacke, W. Noddack, O. Berg, V. Dolejšek, J. Heyrovský, F. H. Loring, J. G. Druce) are introduced and discussed.

Key words: Václav Dolejšek · roentgenospectroscopy · Jaroslav Heyrovský · polarography · dvimanganese search

Summary: The article reviews the search for the new element dvimanganese (with atomic number 75) in Germany, Great Britain, and Czechoslovakia in 1920s. Professors V. Dolejšek and J. Heyrovský noticed the discovery of dvimanganese based on research into manganese salts by roentgenospectroscopy and polarography in Czechoslovakia in 1925. Their discovery was mistaken.

DVT 132, 84
Tadeáš Hájek a Philipp Melanchthon
Josef Smolka

Tadeáš Hájek (Thaddeus Hagecius) and Philipp Melanchthon.
On the basis of the Heidelberg edition of Melanchthon’s correspondence, this article examines his contacts with Prague scholar Thaddeus Hagecius – Hájek (1526–1600). The contact was initiated by a common friend, Prague humanist M. Collinus. Hájek’s name appears in the correspondence in seven places. Mutual contacts are commented on and supplemented by additional materials from Bohemia.

Tadeáš Hájek (Thaddeus Hagecius) und Philipp Melanchthon.
Aufgrund der Heidelberger Herausgabe von Melanchthons Briefwechsel werden seine Kontakte mit dem Prager Gelehrten Thaddeus Hagecius – Hájek (1526–1600) untersucht. Diese wurden durch den gemeinsamen Freund, den Prager Humanisten M. Collinus initiiert. Hájek figuriert an sieben Stellen der oben erwähnten Korrespondenz. Die Kontakte werden kommentiert und mit dem böhmischen Material ergänzt.

Key words: astronomy · 16th century · Bohemia · Baden-Württemberg · correspondence · T. Hagecius – Ph. Melanchthon

Summary: From the correspondence it appears that Melanchthon was very friendly with his much younger colleague. He evaluated his astronomical knowledge, asked for information and findings from the observation of the comet in 1556, and awaited from him an astrological prognosis. The correspondence also confirms Hájek’s visit in Wittenberg, where he doubtless met Melanchthon. The author of the contribution comes to the conclusion that the mutual contacts of the two scholars were likely much richer than the edition of the correspondence reveals, and therefore he regards this as a worthwhile basis for future research.
Zusammenfassung: Die Korrespondenz zeigt, dass Melanchthon seinem weit jüngeren Kollegen in herzlicher Freundschaft zugetan war. Er schätzte besonders dessen astronomischen Kenntnisse, erbat von ihm seine Ergebnisse der Beobachtung des Kometen von 1556 und erwartete von ihm astrologische Prognosen. Die Korrespondenz bestätigt auch einen persönlichen Hájeks Besuch in Wittenberg und bei Melanchthon. Der Autor des Beitrags kam zu der Ansicht, dass die Kontakte der beiden reicher gewesen sein mussten, als die Herausgabe widerspiegelt, und nimmt sie als einen Ausgangspunkt für weitere Forschungen.

DVT 132, 94
Problematika syfilis očima lékaře Christophora Guarinoniho (1534–1604)
Bohdana Divišová

Some issues on syphilis seen by the physician Christophoro Guarinoni (1534–1604).
Syphilis has been one of the most horrible diseases since its appearance in the late 15th century. Physicians had to react to this new illness somehow, and moreover it was their duty to heal it. A very good, but quite neglected source showing how they tried to fight “morbus gallicus” are “consilia,” a special kind of professional medical literature since the Middle Ages. The author of this article used consilia for luetics by one of the best diagnosticians of that time, Christophoro Guarinoni (1530–1604), to show the picture (discourse) of treating the great pox in the second half of the 16th century by one particular physician. Among some expected and known facts like usage of guaiacum or bleeding, we can find many new facts, for example about Guarinoni, who was a Galenical doctor using very strong alchemical medicaments.

Key words: syphilis · Christophoro Guarinoni · history of medicine · consilia medicinalia

Summary: Many historians have been dealing with the history of syphilis, its origin, its expansion, and its therapy, as demonstrated by at least five monographs from last 15 years. They use numerous treatises and tracts by contemporary authorities in their research on the disease, but an important source that could extend our knowledge about the “discourse” of syphilis still goes unnoticed. “Consilia,” consulting literature, is the source. Its value consists above all in its connection with the practice of a particular physician and his real patient. This is documented in the “consilia” of a prominent personal physician of Emperor Rudolph II, Christophor Guarinoni (1530–1604). Among his 622 consilia, 27 intended for the cure of luetic patients are preserved. Their elaboration enables us to gain insight into the personal opinions and approach of one of the most significant diagnosticians of the malady during the 16 th century. Compared with the usual official treatment documented in theoretic tracts, it is possible to come – especially regarding the medicinal substances used – to surprising conclusions disturbing our usual images about the uncompromising anti-Paracelsian attitude of “Galenical-minded” physicians of the 16th century.

DVT 132, 113
Léčivé přípravky podle profesora Löwa
Pavel Drábek

Curative medicine according to Professor Löw.
Remedies of physician J. F. Löw and their composition are derived from contemporary pharmaceutical handbooks.

Key words: pharmacology · 17th–18th century · Bohemia · Prague · Joahnnes Franciscus Löw ab Erlsfeld

Summary: Professor of medicine J. F. Löw von Erlsfeld (1648–1725) was a very successful and popular physician in Prague. He wrote some medical books and also proposed about thirty new compositions of remedies. Eleven of them were published in the Dispensatory of Prague for 1750, twenty-five years after Löw’s death.

© M. Barvík 2012